Note Making Class 12: Format, Examples, Topics, Exercises

Note Making Class 12 - Format, Example, Topics, Exercise

Note Making For Class 12 especially recommended by CBSE. In this post, you will learn the basics of and how to score top marks in note making. Here, we’ll highlight the format and tips for making notes. For your better understanding, this post will provide you with many examples to correlate and analyze. Exercise your writing skills by the topics of note making given.

We also provide Notes and Lesson Plan. Our Study Equation specially made them for better understanding. Students may read the PDF to practice concepts with NCERT Solutions and Extra Questions and Answers. We prepared these by keeping in mind the latest CBSE curriculum. Shine among your friends after scoring high in Quiz, MCQ, and Worksheet.

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Introduction to Note Making

  • Note-making is a means to capture the key ideas of a given passage in an easily readable, logically structured format
  • The style is fairly causal and we can use abbreviations.
  • The key to abbreviations at the end of the task ensures that any other reader may also be able to interpret the notes.
  • Thus, note-making can be a wonderful tool to take notes in class, share notes with each other and even revise for an exam.
  • After note making, we summarize the notes. Summarizing is the selection and paraphrasing information of the original source. This is done by analyzing the passage in order to form a structure of writing.

Features of Note Making

  • Notes are not written in grammatically correct sentences.
  • Notes are much shorter than original text.
  • The main points and the supporting details are distinguished.
  • Many unimportant words, helping words etc. are usually not used.
  • Information is compact and short because of using symbols, abbreviations, shorter words etc.

Applications of Making Notes

  • To revise lessons before examinations
  • To write a report
  • Be able to revise a speech
  • To make presentation
  • To summarize the text

Steps Of Note Making

  1. Read the passage thoroughly.
  2. Underline the important information.
  3. Note down the main points. Write the points in abbreviations (two or three related ideas can be combined into one point).
  4. Use colons and long dash and other symbols and signs.
  5. Number the headings and the main points.
  6. At the end, form a summary on the basis of the notes prepared.

Format of Note Making



Heading 1:


Main Points

Heading 2:

Sub-heading 1:

Important Points

Sub-heading 2:

Important Points

Heading 3:

Main Points

Key To Abbreviations

1. Word 1 – Ab.
2. Word 2 – Br.
3. Word 3 – Vi.
4. Word 4 – Ns.
5. Word 5 – Pqr.

Numbering Pattern



A. Heading 1:

A.1. Sub-heading:

A.1.1 Main Points

B. Heading 2:

B.1. Sub-heading 1:

B.1.1. Important Points

B.2. Sub-heading 2:

B.2.1. Important Points

C. Heading 3:

C.1. Main Points

Finally the summary is prepared on the basis of the notes prepared. (Word limit: 80 words).

Marking Scheme Of Note Making

CBSE prescribes Note Making to be of 8 marks. Here’s how it is divided –

  • Headings – 1 Mark
  • Abbreviations (Key) – 1 Mark
  • Content (Notes) – 3 Marks
  • Summary – 3 Marks

Tips and Tricks of Note Making

  1. Do not write long headings.
  2. Try to complete the notes within 4 to 5 headings.
  3. Notes should be presented in a systematic manner.
  4. Headings and relevant information should be numbered.
  5. Must make a key for abbreviations.

Examples of Note Making

Q.1. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: (8 Marks)

The tests of life are its plus factors. Overcoming illness and suffering is a plus
factor for it Moulds character. Steel is iron plus fire; soil is rock plus heat. So, let’s
include the plus factor in our lives.

Sometimes the plus factor is more readily seen by the simple hearted. Myers tells
The story of a mother who was brought into her home – as a companion to her own
son- a little boy who happened to have a hunch back. She had warned her son to
be careful, not to refer to his disability. The boys were playing and after a few
minutes she overheard her son say to his companion “Do you know what you
have got on your back?” The little boy was embarrassed, but before he could
reply, his playmate continued “It is the box in which your wings are, and some
day God is going to cut it open and then you will fly away and be an angel.”

Often it takes a third eye or a change in focus to see the plus factor. Walking
along the corridors of a hospital recently where patients were struggling with fear
of pain and tests, I was perturbed. What gave me a fresh perspective were the
sayings put up everywhere, intended to uplift. One saying made me conscious of
the beauty of the universe in the midst of pain, suffering and struggle. The other
saying assured me that God was with me when I was in deep water and that no
troubles would overwhelm me.

The import of those sayings also made me aware of the nether springs that flow
into people’s lives when they touch rock bottom or are lonely or guilt ridden. The
Nether springs make recovery possible, and they bring peace and patience in the
midst of negative forces.

The forces of death and destruction are not so much physical as they are psychic
and psychological. When malice, hatred and hard heartedness prevail, they get
channeled as forces of destruction. Where openness, peace and good heartedness
prevail, the forces of life gush forth to regenerate hope and joy. The life force is
triumphant when love overcomes fear. Both fear and love are deep mysteries, but
the effect of love is to build, whereas fear tends to destroy. Love is generally the
plus factor that helps build character. It creates bonds and its reach is infinite.

It is true there is no shortage of destructive elements – forces and people who seek
to destroy others and in the process destroy themselves – but at the same time
there are signs of love and life everywhere that are constantly enabling us to
overcome setbacks. So lets not look at gloom and doom – let us seek positivity
and happiness. For it is when you seek that you will find what is waiting to be

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations, wherever necessary. Also suggest a suitable title. (5 Marks)

Answer :

Title: The Tests of Life- the Plus Factors

A. The Importance of the Tests of Life:
A.1. Illness & Suffering build Char.
A.2. Simple hearted-View disability +vely. Eg: boy with hunch-backed

B. Change of focus required:
B.1. Sayings in hospital: awaken one to universe amidst pain; presence of
B.1.1. Give strength to overcome obstacles
B.1.2. Realization – underlying him. strength in troubles
B.1.3. Bring Peace & Patience

C. Forces of Destruction
C.1. Psychic & psychological
C.2. Consist of malice, hatred & hard headedness
C.3. Fear destroys

D. Forces of Life
D.1. Openness, peace& good heartedness
D.2. Love overcomes fear. Love builds char.& bonds
D.3. Discover signs of love, defeat destructive elements.

Key Abbreviations

1. Character – character
2. Positively – +very
3. Human – Hum
4. Psychological – Psychlgcl
5. Destructive – destrctve

(b) Write a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words, using the notes you have made. (3 Marks)

The tests of life like illness, suffering, pain and disability build character. The simple hearted have the ability to view them as signs of hope and the presence of God. Even in the midst of suffering there is God. The belief that amongst pain and suffering the universe is still beautiful and God present gives strength to overcome obstacles. One must realize there is an underlying human strength that emerges during troubles. This brings peace and patience. The forces of destruction can be overcome by the power of love.


Q.2. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: (8 Marks)

Conversation is indeed the most easily teachable of all arts. All you need to do in order to become a good conversationalist is to find a subject that interests you and your listeners. There are, for example, numberless hobbies to talk about. But the important thing is that you must talk about other fellow’s hobby rather than your own. Therein lies the secret of your popularity. Talk to your friends about the things that interest them, and you will get a reputation for good fellowship, charming wit, and a brilliant mind. There is nothing that pleases people so much as your interest in their interest.

It is just as important to know what subjects to avoid and what subjects to select for good conversation. If you don’t want to be set down as a wet blanket or a bore, be careful to avoid certain unpleasant subjects. Avoid talking about yourself, unless you are asked to do so. People are interested in their own problems not in yours. Sickness or death bores everybody. The only one who willingly listens to such talk is the doctor, but he gets paid for it.

To be a good conversationalist you must know not only what to say, but how also to say it. Be mentally quick and witty. But don’t hurt others with your wit. Finally try to avoid mannerism in your conversation. Don’t bite your lips or click your tongue, or roll your eyes or use your hands excessively as you speak.

Don’t be like that Frenchman who said, “How can I talk if you hold my hand?”

Note making

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations, wherever necessary. Also suggest a suitable title. (5 Marks)

Title: The Art of Conversation Notes

A. Conv’n – most easily tch’ble art
A.1. Reqd. interest’g subject – hobbies
A.2. Talk about other fellow’s hobby
A.3.  A good conversationalist
A.3.1. good f’ship
A.3.2. charm’g wit
A.3.3. brl. mind

B. Fit subs, for conversationalist
B.1. What sujects to avoid/select?
B.2. Avoid unpl’nt subs.
B.2.1. sickness
B.2.2. death
B.2.3. Avoid talk’g about self

C. Qualities of a good conversationalist
C.1. What to say & how to say it
C.2. ment’y quick & witty
C.3. pleasant & unhurting
C.4. avoid mannerisms.

Key Abbreviations

1. Conversation – Conv’n
2. Touchale – Tch’ble
3. Required – Req’d
4. Interesting – Interest’g
5. Fellowship – F’ship
6. Charming – Charm’g
7. Brilliant – Brl.
8. Unpleasant – Unpl’nt
9. Talking – Talk’g
10. Mentally – Ment’y

(b) Write a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words, using the notes you have made. (3 Marks)

Conversation is the easiest and the most effective tool compared to other arts. To have such attractive quality, you need to pick a subject that interests your listeners more than you. Talk to your friends on topics that can indulge your friends in the conversation for a longer period of time. Being a good conversationalist, you have to be quick and witty. You should have a pleasant and un-hurting quality. Mannerism should be avoided.

Note Making: Topics for Practice

Q.1. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: (8 Marks)

The first crisis the lunar explorers faced came just short of moon fall. The Apollo 11 Lunar Module, code – named ‘eagle’, was still 9.5 km (6 miles) up when the vital guidance computer began flashing an alarm. It was overloading. Any second it could give up the ghost under the mounting pressure and nothing the two astronauts could do would save the mission. Emergencies were nothing new to Commander Neil Armstrong but he and his co – pilot Buzz Aldrin hadn’t even practiced for this one on the ground – no one believed it could happen. Sweeping feet first towards their target, they pressed ahead as controllers on Earth waited heart–in – mouth. Racing against the computer, Eagle slowed and then pitched upright to stand on its rocket plume and gave Armstrong his first view of the landing site. The wrong one! They had overshot by four miles into unfamiliar territory and were heading straight for a football field size crater filled with boulders “the size of Volkswagens”.

With his fuel running out, and only a minute’s flying time left, Armstrong coolly accelerated the hovering Eagle beyond the crater, touching 88 km/h (55mph). Controllers were puzzled and alarmed by the unplanned maneuvers. Mission Director George Hale pleaded silently: “Get it down, Neil. Get it down.” The seconds ticked away.

“Forward, drifting right,” Aldrin said. And then, with less than 20 seconds left, came the magic word: “Contact!” Armstrong spoke first: “Tranquility base here, the Eagle has landed.” His words were heard by 600 million people – a fifth of humanity. About six and a half hours later, Eagle’s front door was opened and Armstrong backed out onto a small porch. He wore a €200,000 moon suit, a sort of thermos flask capable of stopping micrometeoroids travelling 30 times faster than a rifle bullet. He carried a backpack which weighed 49 kg and enough oxygen for a few hours. Heading down the ladder, Armstrong unveiled a €200,000 TV camera so the world could witness his first step: “That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.” It was 3.56 am, 21 July, 1969.

Note making

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations, wherever necessary. Also suggest a suitable title. (5 Marks)

(b) Write a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words, using the notes you have made. (3 Marks)

Q.2. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: (8 Marks)

Already in 1899, the core area of what today is the Periyar Sanctuary was declared a reserved forest in order to protect the catchment area of the Periyar River. This river has been dammed in 1895, resulting in several small lakes and a reservoir. In 1934, the area, including the reservoir, was declared a sanctuary. The total area of the present sanctuary is 777 km today and it is located in the state of Kerala in the Cardamom Hill Ranges in the southernmost part of Western Ghats.

The climate is tropical with shifting vegetation and physical features. Precipitation is varying within Periyar with a mean annual rainfall of 2030 mm. An undulating hill landscape with several peaks between 1200 and 1800 m is merged with portions of lower terrain.

Four different types of vegetation characterize the landscape. ‘Sholas or tropical evergreen forest, semi – evergreen forest and moist deciduous forest, which is interrupted by grasslands and reed brakes (‘elephant grass’), particularly on higher altitudes. The fauna is rich, including mammals such as the endangered lion – tailed macaque monkey, the Nilgiris langur monkey, sloth bear, tiger, leopard, elephant, gaur, sambar deer, otter, wild boar and a small population of Nilgiris tahr. In addition to this, 181 bird species have been recorded, including the spectacular great Indian hornbill.

The indigenous population comprises a few tribal groups, now relocated outside the park. The Manan tribe, who formerly lived in the sanctuary, were relocated already in the 1950s. They were later deprived of the land given in compensation, thus left destitute. The Manan community numbers about 1000 people and can today be seen engaged in fishing and casual labor in the close vicinity of the sanctuary.

The pressure on the sanctuary has been intensive in the late 20th century. Each year it is estimated that 150,000 – 200,000 people visit Periyar , but the majority of these visitors are of Indian origin and make day visits by bus or car. A large number stay either in bungalows, lodges or hotels outside the sanctuary and enter the reserve in smaller boats, from which they can spot animals at the shores of the small lakes, or visit the Sabarimala Hindu Temple in the westernmost part of the sanctuary. A minority of the visitors are foreigners and many of them prefer to enter the fringes of the sanctuary by foot during day – trips or spot animals from smaller boats.

Earlier efforts to conserve the sanctuary have been jeopardized by the previously intensive exploitation of the forests and forest products, and in addition to this, the extensive poaching of tiger, elephant, sambar deer, gaur and wild boar. Much of this has been carried out by people from the neighboring state of Tamil Nadu or other locals and to a lesser degree by dislocated tribal people.

Rosewood, teak, cinnamon bark and cardamom have also been logged or extracted illicitly on a major scale. Severe punishment for poaching has not deterred intruders from illegal hunting. Trespassers discovered with firearms within the sanctuary face a minimum prison term of 6 years. If they make use of their weapons, the penalty is 12 years rigorous imprisonment. This information was given independently by four different rangers in the area in 1998, 1999 and 2000. The severe punishment for poaching, or even trespassing increases the risk for the forest guards and local trackers, who regularly patrol the sanctuary, of being shot at by such armed intruders trying to escape.

Note making

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations, wherever necessary. Also suggest a suitable title. (5 Marks)

(b) Write a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words, using the notes you have made. (3 Marks)

Q.3. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: (8 Marks)

“Relay kidnapping’ is the new ‘industry’ in Chambal valley. With rural dacoity going out of vogue, the multi – crore kidnapping industry has turned towards urban residents and high – profile commuters on national highways.

Earlier, dacoits kidnapped people from villages located in the region. Now they buy hostages from Delhi and Bihar gangs. A gang gets around Rs. 20,000 for handing over the hostage to the dacoits, who negotiated with the hostage’s family for a higher price. Between the hit team and the dacoits there are small – town gangs who act as conduits for inbound and outbound hostages.

Anti – dacoity expert Hari Singh Yadav, IPS, said, “The modus operandi has changed, with the actual abduction being done by a small organized gang and the victim being sold to a bigger gang. Now the kidnappings are not being done by ravine dacoits but by urban criminals.”

Often, the police are not alerted by the victim’s family in its concern for the safety of the hostage. Chambal – based journalist Rakesh Pathak commented: “People have stopped relying on the police as the number of murders by kidnappers is on the rise.”

The 37,000 sq km Gwalior – Chambal belt has long been a kidnapper’s haven, thanks to its inaccessible ravines and inter – state borders. The anti – dacoity operations launched in 1960 have resulted in 4,000 bandits being arrested, 2,000 being killed and an equal number’s surrender. But the bandit – police – politician nexus promotes the arrival of fresh recruits and strengthening of existing gangs. Fakkad Baba is a case in point. After evading arrest for 27 years, he successfully negotiated and surrendered in Madhya Pradesh, thus escaping 200 cases against him in Uttar Pradesh.

The last big “classic – style’ kidnapping was done two years ago by the Gadaria gang, which carries a Rs. 15 lakh bounty on its head. The gang took away a bus and collected more than Rs. 50 lakhs, by releasing the passengers one by one over a week.

The last six hostages carried a letter from the Gadarias to the media. It said that the gang paid a monthly fee of Rs. 50,000 to the Gwalior police for protection and ammunition. Rani Chauhan, a victim rescued from the Jagjivan Pariahar gang confirmed that policemen even visit dacoit hideouts in the ravines.

Former Shivpuri MLA, Narendra Birthere, said policemen were in it for promotions and gallantry medals. Chambal – based novelist, Manmohan Kumar Tamanna, elaborated that the police gave petty criminals a free run and killed them when the government put a price on their heads.

Said Tamanna, who has written 46 novels on the Chambal society started: “When a villager becomes a bandit, he helps light a hundred chulahs (hearths). There are people who supply guns on rent, informers get their livelihood from the police, some shuttle the dacoits around, others supply food and groceries and some become middlemen in the kidnapping racket.”

According to police records, the Gwalior – Charnbal region has seen over 2,000 kidnappings between 1998 and 2008. Unofficial estimates put the total ransom amount over Rs. 20 crores. Locals say that the dacoits live on the edge and it is the policemen who benefit – cuts from the ransom when the gang is active; promotions and bounty when the gang is dead.

Note making

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes on it in points only, using abbreviations, wherever necessary. Also suggest a suitable title. (5 Marks)

(b) Write a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words, using the notes you have made. (3 Marks)

Conclusion: Note Making Class 12 Format, Examples, Topics, Exercises

Above includes Note Making Class 12 Format, Examples, Topics, and Exercises. Browse our site for various detailed and easy NCERT Solutions and CBSE Notes.

FAQ Summary writing examples with answers

Differences between note making and note taking?

It is quick, easy to take notes, and it uses the author’s language. The problem is that the content can be difficult to absorb and easily forgotten. Note-making, on the other hand, is more complex, takes longer, and uses our own language. The content is therefore easier to comprehend and remember.

Format of summary writing

A summary is written in your words. The summary only contains the ideas from the original text. A summary should not contain any personal opinions, interpretations, deductions, or comments. You should identify in the order of the most important sub-claims that the author uses to defend your main point.

What is a note

some words that you write down quickly to help you remember something

Enumerated meaning in English?

to name a list of things separately, one by one