We learn about the various sources of energy in the Sources of Energy Class 10 notes. This chapter includes the advantages and disadvantages of sources of energy.
Our Sources of Energy notes explain provide a simple explanation of the chapter, which will boost the confidence of the students during the exam preparation.
These notes for Class 10 Science Chapter 14 indicate the concepts related to the sources of energy for better understanding.
Source of Energy Class 10 Notes PDF, MCQ, Solution (Download)
The ability to conduct work or the entire power derived from our natural resources is referred to as energy. Energy comes in a variety of forms and can be transferred from one form to another. Energy in useable form is dissipated as a less usable form into the environment. A source of energy can consistently provide enough useful energy over a lengthy period of time.
Energy comes mostly from natural sources such as the sun, oceans, fossil fuels, wind, and so on, and is turned into electrical energy that we use for our everyday requirements and advantages.
Let us have a look at the sources of energy in class 10.
What Is a Good Source of Energy?
Any source of energy that does not deplete or exhaust is regarded as an excellent source of energy and is referred to as renewable.
Features of a good energy source:
- High calorific value
- Emits less smoke
- Available easily
- Easy to store and transport
- Leaves less residue after burning
- Less expensive
Classification of Sources of Energy
Sources of energy can be classified into two parts: Renewable Energy and Non-renewable energy.
Renewable Source of Energy: Renewable energy sources are limitless; they can be renewed as we utilize them and used to generate energy again and again. These can be found in an infinite number in nature and evolve in a relatively short length of time. Example of renewable sources of energy include solar energy, tidal energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, etc.
Non-renewable Source of Energy: Non-renewable energy sources are depletable and cannot be replaced once consumed. These resources have accumulated over millions of years in the natural world. Examples of non-renewable sources of energy include coal, petroleum, natural gas, etc.
Fossil fuels are created by the compression of dead organic materials buried deep beneath the earth for millions of years. Examples include Coal or natural gas. For the most part, we rely largely on fossil fuels.
Because fossil fuels are non-renewable and have finite stocks, discovering alternative energy sources is critical to avoiding an energy crisis.
Thermal Power Plants
Thermal power plants use steam generated by the combustion of fossil fuels (mostly coal) to generate eclectic power. Coal combustion heats the water, resulting in steam, which is utilized to power the turbine.
Thermal power plants are usually built near coal or oil deposits since it is easier to transport electricity than coal.
The hydropower plant is another most prevalent source of energy. This source of energy is produced from the kinetic energy of flowing water or the potential energy of water falling from a great height.
A hydropower plant is a non-polluting and environmentally friendly source of energy.
Dams are constructed to capture water that flows down high-altitude rivers. Stored water has a lot of potential energy. Potential energy is transformed into kinetic energy when water falls from a height, which rotates the turbines to produce electricity.
The construction of hydropower plants is very costly and the construction of dams is not practical on all riverbeds.
Biomass is a renewable energy source obtained from living organisms (organic matter). We used to rely on wood as a source of thermal energy for a long time. We create biofuel out of bio-waste, such as cow dung in India, since we have a large livestock population.
The residue left behind when the wood is burned in a limited supply of air and water until volatile components are eliminated is charcoal. Charcoal has high efficiency in terms of generating heat. It also doesn’t have any flames.
Wind energy is an energy source that is both environmentally benign and efficient.
The wind is a natural phenomenon created by pressure differentials on the earth’s surface induced by unequal heating of land and sea masses. Kinetic energy is the form in which it is harnessed. Wind energy can be transformed into mechanical and electrical energy. Wind turbines, which are used to lift water, rely on the wind’s kinetic energy.
The advantages of wind energy are that it is renewable and eco-friendly. There are some disadvantages of wind energy, such as for the production of wind energy, the spending on wind has to be consistent, which is not always possible. It also requires backup storage and cells. The area required for setting up wind turbines is huge and also it requires a heavy capital investment.
Solar energy is the combination of light and heat energy emitted by the sun. The Sun has been emitting energy for the past 5 billion years and will continue to do so for another 5 billion years or longer. Even though just a small fraction of solar energy reaches the earth’s surface, we must find ways to capture it as efficiently as possible.
Solar energy is used to power solar cookers and water heaters. Solar cookers harness that property by covering their insides black, which absorbs more energy than other surfaces. To focus the sun’s rays, they employ reflective surfaces, such as mirrors. By enclosing the gadget with a glass plate, the greenhouse effect is created, trapping heat inside the cooker.
A solar cell is an electronic device that transforms sunlight into electricity. A typical solar cell produces 0.7 W of electrical power and a voltage of 0.5 1 V. A solar panel made up of numerous cells can provide enough electricity for practical applications.
The earth has a tremendous quantity of heat trapped within it. Due to geological changes, molten materials from the Earth’s core occasionally rise to the surface and become trapped in hotspots. Geothermal energy is the process of harnessing this heat energy.
Any underground water that is present is heated by the hotspots and transformed into steam, which exits through the earth’s surface as hot springs. This steam is utilized to generate power by rotating turbines.
Energy From the Sea
The seas, oceans, and other bodies of water are a source of kinetic and potential energy because of the enormous volume of water and the motion of waves.
Tides are changes in the level of water caused by the moon’s gravitational influence. Tidal energy is created by the rise and fall of the water level or the high and low tide. Dams near the sea’s tiny openings are used to generate tidal energy. When the tide comes in, it moves the turbine, which generates power directly. It can only be found near the sea.
Wave energy is another source of energy from the sea. Waves contain a large amount of kinetic energy that can be used to generate electricity. Strong winds sweeping across the sea cause waves to form. Only available in areas with strong winds, this energy has been captured using devices.
Also Read: Essay on Make in India Project
Ocean thermal energy is yet another form of energy from the sea. To harness this sort of energy, the difference in surface temperatures of water and water at a given depth in oceans is exploited. The temperature differential between the surface and the water must be at least 20 degrees Celsius up to a depth of 2 kilometers. The turbine is powered by vapors created by boiling volatile ammonia in warm water. The vapor is condensed back into a liquid using cold water.
Nuclear fission can be utilized to generate electricity from nuclear energy. In a nuclear reactor, nuclear fuel is utilized to produce energy at a controlled rate through a sustained fission chain reaction.
Nuclear fission is the process of splitting a heavy atom (uranium or plutonium) into lighter nuclei by bombarding it with neutrons. This process generates a great deal of energy. The fission of 1 atom of uranium, for example, produces 10 million times the energy of 1 atom of carbon from coal-burning.
Fusion is the process of fusing lighter nuclei to create a heavier nucleus, often hydrogen or hydrogen isotopes, in the case of helium. It generates a tremendous quantity of energy.
Important Questions for Sources of Energy Class 10
1. What is a good fuel?
Ans: A good fuel generates more heat when burned, is inexpensive, and does not contaminate the environment.
2. What are renewable sources of energy?
Ans: Renewable energy sources are limitless, that is, they can be renewed as we utilize them and used to generate energy again and again. These can be found in an infinite number in nature and evolve in a relatively short length of time. Examples of renewable sources of energy include solar energy, tidal energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, etc.
3. What are non-renewable sources of energy?
Ans: Non-renewable energy sources are depletable and cannot be replaced once consumed. These resources have accumulated over millions of years in the natural world. Examples of non-renewable sources of energy include coal, petroleum, natural gas, etc.
4. What is the main source of energy in India?
Ans: The main source of energy in India is Coal. It was formed millions of years ago. India has been recorded as the 2nd largest consumer in the world. India is the home to the 5th largest coal reserves in the world. Coal is used for the generation of electricity in India as it is cheap.
5. What is fossil fuel?
Ans: Fossil fuels are created by the compression of dead organic materials buried deep beneath the earth for millions of years. Examples include Coal or natural gas.
6. What is geothermal energy?
Ans: The earth has a tremendous quantity of heat trapped within it. Due to geological changes, molten materials from the Earth’s core occasionally rise to the surface and become trapped in hotspots. Geothermal energy is the process of harnessing this heat energy.